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About Hoaxlines

Hoaxlines is a disinformation database from Novel Science, a science communication project researching media manipulation and malign influence. Our work has been cited by investigative journalistsfact-checking websites internationally, advocacy groups, and expert resources.


Our two key projects:

The disinformation database: an information hub for all things online malign influence and media manipulation, update several times a week

Pro-Kremlin headline trackers: tables that automatically update multiple times a day with the headlines trending among pro-Kremlin websites, sorted based on whether the audience is Russian or non-Russian.


Definitions and presentation

Russian: When Hoaxlines references Russia unless otherwise stated, we refer to the Russian government currently controlled by Vladimir Putin. We are not referencing the Russian people unless explicitly stated.

Published date reflects the date information or content in the table was published, which may differ from the date it was entered into the table, the submission date.

Submission date reflects the date that Hoaxlines entered the information or content into the database. You can adjust the table to sort by submission date instead.


Disinformation database

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The table may be sorted by published or submission date.

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An example of why published and submission dates may be far apart would be something that is declassified. That will have an older published date but may have a recent entry date. With this type of research, older content that has only recently been submitted may have significance, so we make the table available with sortation both ways.

Questions or comments? Contact us.

Pro-Kremlin headline trackers

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Websites included met one of the following criteria:

Recognized by the federal government or another Western intelligence agency as pro-Kremlin or similar designation

Recognized as pro-Kremlin or another comparable label by research organizations that employ qualified scientists, researchers, or other appropriate experts and that share the evidence supporting their conclusions

Republishing pro-Kremlin content or authors from an outlet that meets criterion one or two, domain ownership by a Tier 1 organization or public endorsement.

See the full explanation for the identification and classification of websites here.

About classification of websites

Outlets are classified as Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 3, Interface, or Multi-State.

⚠️While some of these outlets do have concrete ties to the Russian state, some included in the data do not.

⚠️Inclusion in the database should not be regarded as an assertion that an outlet is affiliated with the Russian state nor that the story is false, misleading, or otherwise nefarious.

Trending headline methodology

This section pertains to the pro-Kremlin trending headline trackers. The collection of data in the trending headline trackers is automated using RSS. The Buzzsumo algorithm determines which articles are “trending” within a group of websites. Articles that trend are entered into the Hoaxlines database. Dates and headlines have not been verified, so those using the data for purposes that require these to be certain should verify the data.

The pro-Kremlin headline trackers update multiple times per day. If you notice a problem or have a question, please fill out the contact form.

NOTE: These classifications are a work in progress. They apply to outlets found in the Hoaxlines databases, whether the disinformation database or the trending headline trackers.

Website Categories

Trending pro-Kremlin headlines for non-Russians

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Trending pro-Kremlin headlines in Russian-language

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Questions or comments? Contact us.